October 29: end of the one-man-rule

October 29: end of the one-man-rule

On October 29 every year, “Republic Day” is celebrated in Turkey. The holiday commemorates the events of 29 October 1923, when Turkish Parliament, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, declared that Turkey was henceforth a republic.

The Turkish people, under the rule of the Ottoman Empire lived under an absolute monarchy until 1876. Ottoman Empire changed the regime to constitutional monarchy from 1876 onwards.

After the end of World War I, during the occupation of Turkey, the Turkish Parliament managed to regroup in Ankara and played an instrumental role in saving the occupied lands under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, at a time where Ottoman King was left without authority in the occupied Istanbul.


On 20 January 1921, the Turkish Parliament declared that sovereignty belonged to the Turkish nation.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, along with İsmet Inonu, prepared a draft law amendment and submitted it to the Assembly on 29 October 1923. With the acceptance of the law amendment, Turkish Republic was proclaimed by the Turkish Parliament.

The proclamation of the Republic was announced in Ankara with 101 ceremonial canon shots and first celebration was held on October 29, 1923 in Ankara.

October 29 is the celebration of the end of the one-man-rule in Turkey. The day marked the beginning of a new era, where sovereignty belonged to the people in Turkey.


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